Acquaviva, S. S. (1979) The Decline of the Sacred in Industrial Society. The development of scientifically based techniques also had its impact on the life world: domestic tasks became increasingly mechanized and computerized. However, the vast majority are of another type, ”world affirming. To describe the core of secularization theory, the different exemplars will be discussed here according to the levels of analysis. Most sociologists will not challenge the first part, although some will question the second part. Whether we call NRMs spiritual or religious is not important, what matters is that we register a change: the ultimate has become ”this worldly.” If one were to employ a substantive definition of religion, referring to transcendent beliefs and practices, to the super natural, many NRMs would not be considered as religions. Researchers should first establish the degree of societal secularization using a comprehensive secularization index. This typical attitude implying observation, evaluation, calculation, and planning – which is based on a belief that the world is indeed calculable, controllable, and predictable – is not limited to the economic system. Macmillan,New York. As has often happened around the world, growing secularization affects attitudes toward family size and toward women’s roles. Another dimension of … Martin, D. A. It is clear that the private/public dichotomy is not a structural aspect of society. The arrival of mo-dernity planted the seeds of secularization … Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen, pp. Hence, most people believe the growing rate of atheism should be synonymous with secularism so as to create a … Doubleday, Garden City, NY. Fenn (1978) has suggested that this is possible only when a society conceives of itself as a “nation,” as ”really real” – typical examples are the US, Japan, and France. Luckmann (1990) suggested that in many NRMs, the level of transcendence was lowered and has become ”this worldly or mundane. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2003). Beckford, J. The remaining 90% of South Africa owns a paltry 7% of the country’s wealth. Even in Catholic hospitals, the organizational structure is based on medical specialisms and the development of administrative rationality, which marginalized religion and, in the second half of the twentieth century, confined it to a small optional service – the chaplaincy. The economy lost its religious ethos (Weber). Journal for the Scientific Study ofReligion 6: 207 20. We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. The concept was introduced by Longueville in the negotiations that led to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 when he used the term seculariser to describe the change in statute of certain ecclesiastical territories that were being added to Brandenburg as compensation for its territorial losses. The country has religious police, known as Mutaween, who roam the streets enforcing religious laws regarding dress codes, prayer, and … (Ed.) The local culinary landscape has been infused with a diverse array of Oriental flavour - most notably in the Natal region. These mundane orientations of religion are not new. On the other hand, the myth is rather seen as a cultural ”fiction” to the extent that a society views itself as an arena for conflicting and cooperative activities of various classes, groups, corporation, and organizations. Berger (1967) stressed the functionality of this for the maintenance of the highly rationalized order of modern economic and political institutions, the so called public sphere. Modern societies are primarily differentiated along functional lines that overlay the prior forms of segmentary and social class differentiation, and have developed different subsystems (e.g., economy, polity, science, family, and education). Pace (1998) has pointed out that in Muslim countries the conflict between country and city – the latter having created new social classes with different attitudes to religious traditions and a greater willingness to accept new choices and values -and emigration, which has affected the religion not only of emigrants but also of those who stay behind, as they compare themselves with their emigrated children, relatives, or friends, have had an impact on individual secularization. These unequal incomes, according to the Inequality Trends report, remain stubbornly racialised, gendered and spatialised. Bellah, R. N. (1967) Civil Religion in America. According to Luckmann (1967), the validity of religious norms became restricted to its proper sphere, i.e., that of private life. Their functional autonomy depends of course on their communication with other functional systems and the environment. Routledge, New York. Prior to the colonization of Africa, various empires, kingdoms and chiefdoms existed in the region and were administered based on models of indigenous governance. Pace, E. (1998) The Helmet and the Turban: Secularization in Islam. Kaufmann is an agnostic. The outcome of such conflicts in court was that managers had to accept employees’ right to privacy. The concept has a long history (which will not be analyzed here), and many authors have emphasized that it has always retained the ambiguous and consequently controversial meaning that it had from the start. Award-winning chef and local legend Dorah Sitole, who spent years as the editor and food editor at True Love magazine, celebrates a culinary journey to savour through her latest book, 40 Years of Iconic Food, Some Nelson Mandela Bay residents are abiding by restrictions; others are feeling festive, Governments around the world are imitating the work of independent media and repurposing it for propaganda, Mail & Guardian pictures editor Paul Botes presents some of the most striking images (Eds. In: Laermans, R., Wilson, B., & Billiet, J. However, secularization may also be the result of a latent process. Therefore, Indian influences have contributed to the multi-cultural diversity of South Africa. The private/public dichotomy is not a sociological conceptualization. First of all, it suggests that secularization was limited to the so called public sphere, which is incorrect: family life has also been secularized. The label is used so often it runs the risk of monotony. Berger, Davie, Martin, and Stark point out the religious fever in the United States, which is contested by other sociologists (e.g., Demerath 2001), and in the world, and they reject the universal pattern of individual secularization, while accepting that Europe is to a large extent secularized on the micro level. Recent qualitative research in Belgium has also revealed that for those unchurched persons and marginal church members who still ask for a religious rite of passage, the meaning of these rites has changed: it expresses for them more of a cultural and family tradition than a religious one. In: Tiryakian, E. A. It postulates a latent religiosity on the demand side, which should become manifest by active competition between religious firms on the supply side. Even when we use a functional definition of religion, we may come to the same conclusion. (1982) Le Sens du sacre: Fête et religion populaire. Secularization is more prominent in urban life than in rural life. As a result, the effects that financial assets like deposits, bonds, equities, life insurance and pension funds have on inequality are left unexplored in the report. Then they should be able to build an individual secularization index and a comprehensive compartmentalization index. Several other factors also play a role, including individualization as a structural component of modern societies, and migration and the mass media, which bring individuals in contact with other religions and undermine the taken for granted certainties of their own religion. What is the relationship between secularism, the state policy; and secularisation, the social process?Most conversations tend … Luhmann’s contention that the social structure is secularized but not the individual is controversial. These include the Iranian Revolution, the rapid spread of Pentecostalism in the global South, communal violence in Southern Asia, the collapse of communism qua secular religion, etc. The top 10% owns 93%. During the country’s 2011 population census, the religious demographics of the… The key element in most sociological ac-counts of secularization is the idea that, over the last several centuries, institutions in the West have be-come differentiated. Wilson, B. R. (1982) Religion in Sociological Perspective. Since these economic and political organizations needed ever greater numbers of people trained in science and rational techniques, the educational curriculum had to change. The scientific approach to the world and the teaching of technical knowledge that replaced a religious literary formation in the schools distressed, for example, the leaders of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, who stimulated the expansion of their own religiously oriented educational network. On the basis of the temperature curve, the fertile and infertile periods can be calculated. But a new report sheds light on the full, multidimensional nightmare of South African inequality. Publicity campaigns by industrial firms and political parties point to the individualization of decisions. 2003). There are deeper indicators of wellbeing than monetary measures, which Stats SA says “are central to understanding South Africa’s inequality and to understanding the processes that generate South Africa’s money-based inequality”. We sought to investigate the nature, causes and effects of school violence in four South African high schools. Hiernaux and Voye led a study of Catholics in French speaking Belgium who intended to have a religious burial. Suhr-kamp, Frankfurt. National myths sacralize their prophets, martyrs, and historical places: they have their ritualistic expressions and may also use biblical archetypes (Bellah 1967). Consequently, some, like TM, claim to be spiritual rather than religious movements. But what does it mean to be the world’s most unequal society? These examples also clearly indicate that secularization is not a mechanical, evolutionary process but a consequence of divergent definitions, the outcome of which is dependent upon the balance of power. Here, the report delivers devastating evidence regarding the performance of incomes at the top and the bottom. What explains the emergence of a ”religious” rather than a ”secular” myth, or vice versa, and what accounts for the secularization of a religious myth? However, on the micro level, secularization could also be defined as ”secularization of mind” or compartmentalization: to what extent do people think in terms of separation of the religious subsystem and the juridical, educational, economic, family, scientific, medical, and political subsystems? Voye, L. (1998) Death and Christmas Revisited. What degree of pluralism is congruent with a church fulfilling the role of civil religion? 2: Zur Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Goals and means were evaluated on a cost efficiency basis. Studies in the western world have highlighted religious bricolage resulting from individuals shopping on the religious market, as on other markets, and building their own meaning system (Dobbelaere et al. According to the latest figures from the World Inequality Database, the top 1% of South African earners take home almost 20% of all income in the country, while the top 10% take home 65%. Brill, Leiden, pp. In the United States an alternative theory to secularization, which was not considered applicable in the US context, was developed: rational choice theory (RCT). The housing shortage, the multiplicity of the means of transport and communication, the economic problems, fashion, education, urban, political and social structure, influence of western culture on urban life, individualism all these factors have secularized the urban outlook. All material © Mail & Guardian Online. This means that our societies function according to the principle of the individualization of decisions and actions, which implies that this principle is a structural component of modern societies. Weber, M. (1920) Die protestantischen Sekten und der Geist des Kapitalismus. South Africa is an important case study because it went through a rapid process of modernisation from the 1990s onwards. The remaining 90% of South African earners get only 35% of total income. Formerly, the ritual was centered on the life to come and the mystery surrounding it, whereas now the ritual centered upon the deceased: his life, loves, friendships, and accomplishments: the texts read and the songs and music played were chosen by the family with reference to the deceased. The real wages of the bottom 10% of earners have plummeted, shrinking by a quarter between 2011 and 2015. Demerath, III, N. J. Her interpretation is based on data from the European Values Study referring, among other indicators, to belief in God. South Africa today has a fertility rate just above replacement levels—higher than that of the U.S., but much lower than that of most African nations. In a study in Western and Central European countries, researchers were able to measure the degree of compartmentalization and to establish that the unchurched and members of the Protestant and Catholic churches with the lowest degree of church commitment think most in terms of compartmentalization (Billiet et al. HOSEA LAYTON MATLALA Second Applicant In such systems, control is no longer based on morals and religion but has become impersonal, a matter of routine techniques and unknown officials – legal, technical, mechanized, computerized, and electronic – for example, speed control by unmanned cameras and video control in department stores. Luhmann, N. (1977) Funktion der Religion. IN THE HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA (GAUTENG DIVISION, PRETORIA) (1) REPORTABLE: NO (2) OF INTEREST TO OTHER JUDGES: NO (3) REVISED: CASE NO: 80902/2017. In the late twentieth century the idea of secularization was, undoubtedly, a dominant paradigm. Indeed, civil religion generalizes the different notions of God present in the various denominations: the God of the Jews, Catholics, Unitarians, Calvinists, and so forth. Dobbelaere, K., Tomasi, L., & Voye, L. (2003) Religious Syncretism. Another issue for inquiry is how and to what extent in certain countries a conventional religion may function as a civil religion in a religiously pluralistic society, and at what price, e.g., Anglicanism in England, Lutheranism in the Scandinavian countries, and Calvinism in the Netherlands. Secondly, it is the adoption in sociological discourse of ideological concepts used by liberals and socialists in the nineteenth century to legitimize functional differentiation and the autonomization of so called secular institutions: ”religion is a private matter.”. Young, L. A. However, it may be remarked that the content of belief in God has greatly changed: the number of people believing in a ”personal God” is shrinking and is replaced by a growing number of agnostics and persons believing in ”a spirit or life force.” Although sociological research in Belgium shows that a certain percentage of the unchurched still pray and define themselves as religious, a more detailed analysis reveals that, among those who have been at least two generations unchurched, fewer people define themselves as religious and fewer maintain a private practice than among the first generation unchurched. One may also consider the need for secular laws overarching divergent, religiously inspired mores in religiously divided states. 207 36. The religious wars in Europe lasted from roughly 1540 to 1700. Later generations of sociologists continued to employ the term, but attached different meanings to it (Shiner 1967). Pluralization, or the segmentary differentiation of the subsystem religion, was only possible, according to Parsons (1967), once the Christian ethic was institutionalized in the so called secular world: in other words, once the Christian ethic became generalized. Sociologists of religion should combine both theoretical approaches and integrate them (Dobbelaere 2002 ). because secularization takes different forms than those common in the West. In: Piedmont, R. L. & Moberg, D. O. However South Africa registered an almost 20% drop in religious affiliation over a seven year period from 2005 to 2012. Female workers earned around 30% less than male workers during the same period, and workers in the countryside earned less than half of what urban workers did. This dichotomy, private/ public, carries with it at least two shortcomings. Leuven University Press, Leuven, pp.165 75. In Belgium and the Netherlands, recent governments have laicized laws on life and death by legalizing abortion and depenalizing euthanasia, and they have extended marriage to homosexual couples, changing, according to a religious view, a so called God given law. A purposive sample of five principals, 80 learners and 20 educators was selected from the four schools used in the study. (Eds. This innovation led to the development of the assembly line. Isambert (1982) underscored the slide from the scriptural and liturgical basis of the nativity, which is oriented toward the incarnation and redemption, toward the Christ child. The trend toward societalization or Verge sellschaftung is very clear in the distribution sector: neighborhood stores are increasingly replaced by large department stores, where interactions between customers and employees are limited to short, informative questions and exchanges of money for goods. On the micro level, secularization is here defined as declining religiosity and a change in motivation in the use of religious rites: from a traditional religious reference to a secularly motivated use. Editions de Minuit, Paris. (1969) ‘Making men modern: on the causes and consequences of individual change in six developing countries’, American Journal of Sociology, 75.2 (September): 208–25. Luckmann called it internal secularization, a radical inner change in American church religion: the secular ideas of the American Dream pervade church religion today. The first section examines the secularisation thesis of Weber and his supporters, as well as theories of desecularisation. However, the system cannot prevent private individuals from failing to differentiate some functions and, for example, voting according to their religious beliefs or choosing a school for their children appropriate to their religious views. 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